Proper nutrition is, first of all, a varied diet, taking into account the genetic characteristics of a person, his age, physical activity, climatic and seasonal characteristics of the environment. It allows the body to maximize its genetic potential, however, the body is not able to surpass this potential, no matter how well nutrition is organized.
It should be noted that there are no such foods that in themselves would be good or bad. All foods have nutritional value to some degree, but there is no one perfect food. It is important not only what we eat, but how much we eat, when we eat and in what combinations we eat certain foods.
Consider in detail the main types of nutrients needed by the body.
Carbohydrates are organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They are found in all foods, but they are especially abundant in cereals, fruits and vegetables.
Carbohydrates are divided into two groups according to the complexity of their chemical structure: simple and complex carbohydrates.
The basic unit of all carbohydrates is a sugar called glucose. Glucose is a simple sugar.
Several residues of simple sugars combine with each other and form complex sugars. The basic unit of all carbohydrates is a sugar called glucose. Glucose is a simple sugar.
Several residues of simple sugars combine with each other and form complex sugars.
Thousands of residues of molecules of the same Sugars, connecting with each other, form a polysaccharide: there are about 50 thousand different types of proteins. All of them consist of four elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, which, in a certain way, combine with each other to form amino acids. There are 20 types of amino acids. A compound consisting of a large number of amino acids is called a polypeptide. Each protein in its chemical structure is a polypeptide. Most proteins contain an average of 300-500 amino acid residues. It should be noted that some bacteria and all plants are able to synthesize all the amino acids from which proteins are built.
Vitamins are organic chemical compounds that the body needs for normal growth, development and metabolism. Vitamins are neither carbohydrates, nor proteins, nor fats. They are made up of other chemical elements and do not provide the body with energy.
Citrus fruits are an excellent source of vitamin C. Getting the right amount of vitamin C from fruits and vegetables energizes the immune system.
Zinc is also very important for strengthening the immune system – it has an antiviral and antitoxic effect. You can get it from seafood, from unrefined grains and brewer’s yeast. In addition, you need to drink tomato juice – it contains a large amount of vitamin A.
You need to eat protein. Protective immunity factors – antibodies (immunoglobins) are built from protein. If you eat little meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, nuts, then they simply cannot be formed.
It is useful to eat foods that increase the number of beneficial bacteria in the body. They are called probiotics and include onions and leeks, garlic, artichokes, and bananas.
In spring and at the end of winter, there is a lack of vitamins in the body. Of course, you know boxes and jars with vitamins. Some will buy sweet pills containing vitamins and eat almost the whole pack at once. Then, suddenly, for no reason at all, nausea, a headache begin …. This is the body lets you know about the increased content of vitamins. Therefore, vitamin preparations can be taken only on the recommendation of a doctor or at least with the permission of adults.
The composition of the human body includes a variety of substances: iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium, etc. But most of all in the human body is water. The brain, for example, contains 80% water, muscles 76%, bones 25%.
Animals in the process of evolution have lost the ability to synthesize ten particularly complex amino acids, called essential. They get them ready-made with plant and animal food. Such amino acids are found in proteins of dairy products (milk, cheese, cottage cheese), eggs, fish, meat, as well as in soybeans, beans and some other plants.
In the digestive tract, proteins are broken down into amino acids, which are absorbed into the bloodstream and enter the cells. In cells, they build their own proteins characteristic of a given organism.
Minerals – inorganic compounds, which account for about 5% of body weight. Minerals serve as structural components of teeth, muscles, blood cells and bones. They are essential for muscle contraction, blood clotting, protein synthesis, and cell membrane permeability. The body receives minerals from food.
Minerals are divided into two classes: macronutrients and micronutrients.
Macroelements – calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chlorine and magnesium – are required by the body in relatively large quantities.
microeelements: iron, manganese, copper, iodine, cobalt, zinc and fluorine. The need for them is somewhat less.
Water is one of the most important components of the body, accounting for 2/3 of its mass. Water is the main component of all biological fluids. It serves as a solvent for nutrients and waste. The role of water in regulating body temperature and maintaining acid-base balance is great; Water is involved in all chemical reactions occurring in the body.
In order for nutrition to meet the requirements of a healthy lifestyle, it must provide the body with all the necessary nutritional elements in the required quantity and combination. The human body is a complex mechanism. Human health depends on how much energy a person receives and how much he spends it, and how harmoniously all his organs work, providing the necessary level of vital activity.
Influence of motor activity and hardening
Physical culture has always occupied a leading place in preparing a person for an active fruitful life. It can successfully solve the problem of disturbed balance between the strength of emotional stimuli and the realization of the physical needs of the body. This is a sure way to strengthen spiritual and physical health.
Physical culture has an important impact on a person’s ability to adapt to sudden and strong functional fluctuations. In total, a person has 600 muscles, and this powerful motor apparatus requires constant training and exercise. Muscle movements create a huge flow of nerve impulses sent to the brain, maintain the normal tone of the nerve centers, charge them with energy, relieve emotional overload. In addition, people who are constantly engaged in physical culture look more attractive outwardly. Physical education is the best measure to prevent alcohol, smoking and drug addiction.
Training gives a person self-confidence. People who regularly engage in physical activity are less prone to stress, they cope better with anxiety, anxiety, depression, anger and fear. They are not only able to relax more easily, but also know how to relieve emotional stress with the help of certain exercises. Physically trained people resist diseases better, it is easier for them to fall asleep on time, their sleep is stronger, they need less time to sleep. Some physiologists believe that every hour of physical activity prolongs a person’s life by two to three hours.
Daily morning exercises are a mandatory minimum of physical activity for the day. It is necessary to make it the same habit as washing your face in the morning.
Hardening is an increase in the body’s resistance to the adverse effects of a number of environmental factors (for example, low or high temperature) by systematically affecting the body of these factors.
Modern dwellings, clothing, transport, etc., reduce the impact on the human body of atmospheric influences, such as temperature, humidity, and sunlight. Reducing such influences on our body reduces its resistance to environmental factors. Hardening is a powerful healing tool. With its help, you can avoid many diseases and keep your ability to work, the ability to enjoy life for a long time. The role of hardening in the prevention of colds is especially great. Hardening procedures reduce their number by 2-4 times, and in some cases help to get rid of colds altogether. Hardening has a general strengthening effect on the body, increases the tone of the central nervous system, improves blood circulation, and normalizes metabolism.
The main conditions that must be met when hardening the body are the systematic use of hardening procedures and a gradual increase in the strength of the impact. It must be remembered that 2-3 months after the hardening is stopped, the previously achieved level of body resistance begins to decline.
The most common form of hardening is the use of fresh, cool air. For this, in the warm season, long walks, hiking, sleeping indoors with an open window are good.
At home it is useful to walk barefoot on the floor, and for the first time in a while! minutes, then every week increase the duration by 1 minute. In the cold season, it is good to supplement walks with skiing, skating, slow hardening running in lightweight clothes. An increase in resistance to low temperatures is also facilitated by doing morning exercises in the open air or in a well-ventilated room.
The stronger hardening factor is water. In addition to temperature, water has a mechanical effect on the skin, which is a kind of massage that improves blood circulation.
Hardening can be carried out in the form of wiping or dousing with water. Begin hardening with water at a temperature not lower than 33-35 degrees and then every 6-7 days the water is cooled by one degree.